Which Sea Turtles Are Endangered?

Of the seven species of sea turtles, three are classified as endangered or critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

These include the leatherback sea turtle, hawksbill sea turtle, and Kemp’s ridley sea turtle. With threats like habitat loss, climate change, and bycatch from fishing impacting populations, conservation efforts are needed to help recover these species.

This blog post will provide an overview of why these particular sea turtles are at risk and what is being done to protect them.

Which Sea Turtles Are Endangered? [Comprehensive List]

Sea turtles have been swimming in the oceans for over 100 million years. But today, these ancient mariners face threats from human activity, with 6 out of 7 species listed as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered.

Losing sea turtles would upset delicate marine ecosystems and rob future generations of experiencing these fantastic creatures.

To understand the plight of endangered sea turtles, we’ll overview each species, their conservation status, and the reasons for their decline:

  1. Green Sea Turtle (Endangered)

Known for their greenish color due to a vegetarian diet rich in algae, green sea turtles inhabit tropical and subtropical coastal waters around the world.

Growing over 3 feet long and weighing up to 700 pounds, they migrate long distances between feeding grounds and the beaches where they nest and lay eggs.

Green sea turtles are listed as endangered due to overharvesting of their eggs, hunting of adults for food and shell products, habitat loss from coastal development, and accidental capture in fishing gear. Global numbers have declined by over 60% in the last half-century.

  1. Leatherback Sea Turtle (Vulnerable)

The most giant sea turtle and one of the most migratory, leatherbacks roam entire oceans in search of jellyfish and other soft-bodied prey.

Reaching over 6 feet long and 2,000 pounds, their tapered shells lack the hard scutes possessed by other sea turtles, instead featuring a leathery, oil-saturated carapace for insulation in cold waters.

Leatherbacks suffer from egg poaching, fisheries bycatch from longlines and gillnets, pollution, and boat strikes. They’re now rarer than three species of critically endangered sea turtles and face local extirpations as numbers continue to decline.

  1. Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Critically Endangered)

Renowned for beautifully patterned shells once used for combs, jewelry, and other decorative items, hawksbills inhabit tropical reefs and mangroves, where they feed on sponges and algae. Typically under 3 feet long, they migrate between feeding sites and tropical beaches for nesting.

Centuries of shell trade decimated global populations, while more recent threats come from coastal development, pollution, predation of eggs and hatchlings, marine debris, boat strikes, and fisheries bycatch. Hawksbills are now among the world’s most endangered sea turtles.

  1. Kemp’s Ridley Sea Turtle (Critically Endangered)

The smallest sea turtle, Kemp’s ridleys, grows 2 feet long on average and preys on crabs, mollusks, jellyfish, and other small creatures in the coastal shallows of the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic seaboard.

They exhibit a unique mass nesting behavior where thousands converge in daytime “arribadas” on the same beaches.

Almost hunted to extinction for meat, Kemp’s ridleys saw some recovery after nesting site protections, only to suffer significant setbacks from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and persistent threats from shrimp trawlers. They remain the world’s most endangered sea turtle species.

  1. Olive Ridley Sea Turtle (Vulnerable)

Olive ridleys, named for the greenish color of their shells and skin, occur widely across tropical regions of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans.

Nesting in massive synchronized arribadas, they forage singly for shrimp, crabs, snails, and a variety of marine animals. Typically under 3 feet long as adults, they make extraordinary transoceanic migrations every 1-2 years to feed and mate.

Once heavily exploited for meat, hides, and shells, improved legal protections have enabled some recovery.

However, eggs and hatchlings still face heavy predation from wild animals and feral dogs, while fishery interactions and marine pollution remain threats.

  1. Flatback Sea Turtle (Vulnerable)

Endemic to the continental shelf of northern Australia, the flatback gets its name from the low-domed, olive-colored carapace characteristic of the species.

They lack the scutes present in most other sea turtles and measure around 3 feet long on average. Their range and habits concentrate on feeding and breeding in proximity.

Limited to Australian waters with smaller nesting beaches, flatback numbers began declining from commercial harvesting of eggs and turtles before protective measures aided stabilization.

However, they remain vulnerable with low genetic diversity and continue facing threats from fisheries bycatch and coastal habitat degradation.

  1. Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Vulnerable)

Loggerheads are the quintessential sea turtle for many, named for their relatively giant heads and powerful jaws that can crush hard-shelled prey like conchs and crabs.

They grow over 3 feet long on average and weigh up to 500 pounds, migrating between tropical and temperate coastal habitats in all but the coldest oceans.

Intensive exploitation for meat and eggs decimated global populations, and though their numbers today have improved due to protections, loggerheads still face further declines from fisheries bycatch, marine pollution, boat strikes, propeller injuries, displacement from nesting beaches by coastal development, and predation of nests and hatchlings.

The Most Endangered Sea Turtles are Getting Too Cold!

Which is the Most Endangered Sea Turtle?

The Kemp’s ridley is considered the world’s most endangered sea turtle. Historically abundant with mass synchronized nesting, excessive egg collection and hunting for meat drove them close to extinction by the mid-1900s.

Conservation efforts prevented total collapse, but the species has struggled to recover and remains critically endangered today.

Other severely threatened species, like the hawksbill, also rank among the most endangered due to the devastating impacts of historical shell and tortoiseshell trades. Leatherbacks likewise contend with severe threats driving population crashes in many regions.

But the unique arribada nesting habits of Kemp’s ridleys originally made them highly vulnerable to mass exploitation, and they exhibit little sign of recovery.

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Endangered Sea Turtles Overview

Sea TurtleConservation StatusKey ThreatsPopulation Trend
Kemp’s RidleyCritically EndangeredFishery Bycatch, Oil Spills, Nest PredationDeclining
HawksbillCritically EndangeredShell Trade, Fisheries, Habitat LossDeclining
GreenEndangeredHunting, Fisheries, Habitat LossDeclining
LeatherbackVulnerableFisheries, Plastic Pollution, Boat StrikesDeclining
Olive RidleyVulnerableFisheries, Nest Predation, Habitat LossDeclining
FlatbackVulnerableFisheries, Habitat Degradation, Climate ChangeStable
LoggerheadVulnerableFisheries, Habitat Loss, Plastic IngestionDeclining

Why Are Sea Turtles Endangered?

Sea turtles face a range of anthropogenic threats in the modern era, driving population declines or impediments to recovery:

Overharvesting: The historical hunting of sea turtles for meat, eggs, shells, leather, and other products decimated many populations. Some exploitation continues illegally today.

Fisheries Interactions: Sea turtles get caught in nets, on longlines, and in trawls, drowning or becoming injured. This “bycatch” kills tens to hundreds of thousands annually.

Habitat Degradation: Coastal development destroys and brightens nesting beaches, while boat traffic and pollution injure and kill sea turtles.

Plastic Pollution: Sea turtles mistake floating plastic bags, balloons, and debris for jellyfish prey, choking them or clogging their digestive system.

Climate Change: Rising seas flood turtle nests while hotter sand threatens nesting success and produces skewed hatchling sex ratios. Acidifying oceans also disrupt shell formation.

Poaching: Sea turtle eggs remain illegally gathered in some regions, while adults get hunted, removing individuals before breeding and exacerbating losses.

What Happens If Sea Turtles Go Extinct?

As long-lived keystone species spanning globe-spanning habitats, sea turtles help uphold entire ocean ecosystems. Should sea turtles perish, we would expect substantial negative impacts:

  • Disruption of food chains – from seagrass beds to coral reefs – as turtles no longer cycle nutrients through these systems.
  • Imbalance or worsening of issues like jellyfish overpopulation that turtles help control. Jellyfish could outcompete fish for plankton.
  • Loss of nesting beach ecosystem services from oxygenation of sands to nutrient transport into island forests that facilitate other nesting seabirds and dune plant growth.
  • Weakening of coastal barrier protections, as turtle nest digging forms dunes blocking storm surges, while carcasses provide stabilizing nutrients.
  • Reef and seagrass health declines as algae-eating species like green and hawksbill turtles disappear, allowing algal overgrowth.
  • Psychological distress for people from losing charismatic species that connect us to the oceans and represent coastal heritage.

In essence, vital threads in ocean life’s interconnected web would unravel without sea turtles shuffling energy between marine habitats, regulating prey balance, transporting nutrients, engineering coastal landforms, and inspiring conservation values. Preventing their extinction is paramount.

Things We Can Do To Help Sea Turtles

Many challenges contribute to sea turtle endangerment, but there are also meaningful actions individuals and policymakers can take to support these creatures:

  • Reduce plastic usage and participate in beach or waterway cleanups to combat ingestion and entanglement threats.
  • Support effective development of Turtle Excluder Devices, allowing turtles to escape shrimp trawls.
  • Follow guidelines that darken beaches at night during nesting seasons so hatchlings correctly orient seaward.
  • Patron responsible tourism operators that steer boats clear of turtles and avoid disturbing nesting sites.
  • Report injured, trapped or harassed turtles to wildlife response networks.
  • Urge policymakers at local to international levels to expand protected critical habitat and establish or enforce fishing regulations that curb bycatch.
  • Spread awareness about the magical lives of sea turtles and why we must prevent their extinction however we can.

Can You Keep a Sea Turtle as a Pet?

Sea turtles do not make suitable pets. All species remain internationally protected with total bans on capture, harassment, possession, or killing. Plus, the practical difficulties of sea turtle care make personal possession invariably harmful:

  • Turtles may live over 50 years. Few can provide lifetime care.
  • Handling stresses delicate species lacking disease resilience outside native ranges.
  • Aquarium spaces fail to meet habitat needs. Tanks grow too small, lack vital foods, and preclude migratory behaviors.
  • Constant feeding disrupts natural diets, foraging interests, and body conditions while encouraging illness.
  • Complex heating, filtration, and lighting needs prove highly challenging for keepers to meet correctly.

Additionally, sea turtles possess sensitive instincts adapted to locating nesting beaches and traversing entire oceans.

Removing them from living in captivity denies natural behaviors and fulfillment of ecological roles while posing ethical dilemmas and legal risks.

Those who admire sea turtles can better help by supporting conservation initiatives enabling thriving wild populations.


Sea turtles represent some of Earth’s most wondrous creatures, making 100-million-year epic migrations across our blue planet that now hang in the balance.

Overharvesting, marine pollution, fishery bycatch, coastal development, plastic debris, and a warming climate driving nest failures place green, hawksbill, Kemp’s ridley, leatherback, olive ridley, flatback, and loggerhead sea turtles alike on endangered species lists.

Losing sea turtles promises forthcoming ecological disruption, given their importance in energy cycling in seagrass, mangroves, and coral reefs.

Everyone must expand awareness and support economic actions like reducing plastic usage in addition to pushing policymakers for strengthened legal habitat protections. Our children hoped to meet sea turtles one day, just as we did.

Only through diligent worldwide commitment can we now ensure the perpetuation of these iconic species across the depths for millions more years to come.

Here are 5 crucial frequently asked questions about endangered sea turtles:

How many species of sea turtles are endangered?

Currently, 6 out of the 7 species of sea turtle are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. These include the green sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle, hawksbill sea turtle, Kemp’s ridley sea turtle, olive ridley sea turtle, and flatback sea turtle. Only the loggerhead sea turtle is currently listed as Vulnerable rather than Endangered or Critically Endangered.

What is the most endangered sea turtle species?

The Kemp’s ridley sea turtle is considered the world’s most endangered sea turtle. It is currently listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List, with population numbers still showing declines. Kemp’s ridges came close to extinction in the mid-1900s due to hunting and egg harvesting but had begun to rebound following protections before facing renewed threats.

Why are sea turtles becoming endangered?

Sea turtles face numerous anthropogenic threats, including overharvesting for meat and eggs historically, as well as newer hazards like fisheries bycatch, marine pollution, boat strikes, climate change impacts, coastal habitat destruction from development, and plastic ingestion. These varied risks, from direct harvesting to impeded breeding, combine to increase mortality and suppress population numbers.

How does the endangerment of sea turtles impact marine ecosystems?

As keystone species spanning multiple habitat types across the oceans, sea turtles are critical for recycling nutrients, regulating prey balances, distributing nutrients, engineering coastal landforms, and upholding conservation values that support entire food chains. Loss of sea turtles would negatively impact nesting beaches, coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangroves, and human communities alike.

How can someone help protect endangered sea turtles?

People wishing to support sea turtle conservation can reduce plastic use, organize beach cleanups, responsibly observe turtle nesting when allowed, report harassment or collisions with boats, donate to research efforts, choose sustainable seafood, and urge policymakers to mandate fishing regulation reforms and expanded protected habitat to curb further population declines until species recover.

My name is Shayan Mondal, and I am a passionate turtle owner and enthusiast who enjoys sharing my knowledge and experience with fellow turtle lovers. As a proud owner of several turtle species, I understand the importance of proper care, habitat setup, and nutrition for these delightful creatures. This website regularly updates the latest insights into turtle health, diet, and conservation efforts.

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